CAS# 8013-97-6; 8001-61-4

HARVEST PERIOD

PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL DATA AND APPLICATIONS

Copaiba balsam is one of the most sold medicinal oils in the Amazon. Mixed with honey and andiroba fights throat infections and overall influenza processes. It is much appreciated to treat infections in the respiratory and urinary tract due to its healing and anti-inflammatory qualities. It is known as a natural antibiotic that acts highly effective against gram-positive bacteria. In the industrial-cosmetic process, it is used as a component of fragrance in perfumes and cosmetic preparations, because of its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and emollient properties. The chemical composition of the copaiba balsam may have approximately 72 sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbons) and 28 diterpenes (carboxylic acids). The most studied sesquiterpene is caryophyllene showing high efficiency in pain relieve and anti-fungal properties. Among the diterpenes, the kaurenoic and copalic acid stand out.

Copaiba balsam is valued because of its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and emollient properties. Recommended for anti-acne and depilatory formulations; for oily skin with antiseptic properties. Rapidly relieves pain and itching of the inflamed and irritated skin.

Copaiba balsam together with andiroba oil they are extremely effective in fighting dandruff. In oily hair copaiba balsam helps to balance the excessive scalp sebum production.

POPULAR USAGE

In traditional medicine, the application of the resin of Copaiba balsam is multiple showing a wide range of pharmacological properties. It is much appreciated to treat infections in the respiratory and urinary tract due to its healing and anti-inflammatory qualities. It is known as a natural antibiotic that acts highly effective against gram-positive bacteria. In the industrial-cosmetic process, it is used as a component of fragrance in perfumes and cosmetic preparations, such as soaps and creams because of its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and emollient properties.

ECOLOGY

There are several species of Copaiba balsam, even having some botanical differences, to all are attributed the same medical-cosmetic utilizations. The copaiba balsam is adapted to a wide range of environments, occurs as well in terra firme as in flooded areas, can reach 25 to 40 meters in height and live up to 400 years. The extraction process of the resin of Copaiba balsam is still rudimentary. A hole is drilled into the wood with an auger until to the center of the trunk, localized 60 or 70 cm from the ground. Immediately a tube is installed below the hole to collect the resin into a container placed on the floor. The resin is drained for a few days, and at the end of the harvest, the hole is sealed with clay to prevent infestation of trees by fungi or termites. The tree should rest at least three years before the next extraction. This process is called rational extraction. The average performance of each adult tree is 4 to 5 liters. The seed germination is rapid, however, growth rates of the tree are slow reaching only 50 cm per year. The extraction of the resin should not be made before the tree reaches a diameter of 40 cm.

REFERENCES

Basile, A. C., et al. “Anti-inflammatory activity of oleoresin from Brazilian Copaifera.” J. Ethnopharmacol. 1988; 22: 101–9. .

Cascon, V., et al. “Characterization of the chemical composition of oleoresins of Copaifera guianensis Desf., Copaifera duckei Dwyer and Copaifera multijuna Hayne.” Phytochemistry. 2000; 55(7): 773–78. .

Lima, S. R., et al. “In vivo and in vitro studies on the anticancer activity of Copaifera multijuga Hayne and its fractions.” Phytother. Res. 2003 Nov; 17(9): 1048-53 .

MORAIS, L. R. : Banco de Dados Sobre Espécies Oleaginosas da Amazônia, não-publicado .

NEVES, J. K. de O. et al (2018): Microemulsions containing Copaifera multijuga Hayne oil-resin: Challenges to achieve an efficient system for β-caryophyllene delivery; Industrial Crops & Products 111 (2018) 185–192 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320559845_Microemulsions_containing_Copaifera_multijuga_Hayne_oil-resin_Challenges_to_achieve_an_efficient_system_for_b-caryophyllene_delivery .

SHANLEY, P. et al (2011): Fruit trees and useful plants in Amazonian life, FAO, CIFOR .

Wilkins, M., et al. “Characterization of the bactericidal activity of the natural diterpene kaurenoic acid.” Planta Med. 2002 68(5): 452–54 .

Helping Communities

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